Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle
1214 E. National Avenue-Ste. 130 (Main Floor)
                                   Brazil, Indiana  47834

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Common Conditions
and Diseases
of the Foot and Ankle

Achilles Tendonitis -
A painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone.
Ankle Sprain - 
Over extension of ligaments resulting from trauma, athletic injury or an inherently unstable ankle.
Arthritis - 
Symptoms include joint stiffness, pain or tenderness that persists two weeks or more. The cartilage protecting the joint is eroding and pain is caused by bone rubbing against bone. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteo arthritis are the two most common forms of the disease, though more than 100 varieties exist.
Athlete’s Foot - 
A contagious fungal infection, recognizable by red, dry cracked and itchy skin between the toes or on the side of the feet.  May lead to more serious skin problems when left untreated.
Bunion - 
Painful condition caused by misalignment or enlargement of the bone at the base of the big toe (an inherited deformity, but aggravated by improperly fitting footwear or excessive physical activity); bunions can lead to joint arthritis if left untreated
Calluses - 
Thickened, irritated dead skin, usually found on the heel or ball of the foot.  The skin can become ulcerated and infected in individuals with diabetes and other individuals with poor circulation.
Corn - 
A hard, painful area of thickened skin, usually covering a protruding bone or in between the toes. Often caused by irritation of improperly fitting shoes.
Fallen Arches (a.k.a. flat feet) - 
Low or non-existent arches put excessive stress on ankle, knee, hip, and back, and can lead to further disability with advancing age and inactivity.
Hammer Toe - 
A tightening of ligaments and tendons causing the toe joints to buckle, forcing the toe upward and leading to shoe abrasion, inflammation, bursitis, corns or calluses
Heel pain (Plantar Fasciitis) - 
Irritation of the ligament situated along the bottom of the foot attaching to the heel.  Usually causes pain upon rising in the morning, or after prolonged sitting.  Prolonged inflammation can cause bone spurs to develop. 
Ingrown Toenail - 
Excessively curved nail that causes pain by growing into the skin. Sometimes, a chronic condition.
Metatarsalgia - 
Pain in the ball of the foot, often caused by excessive wearing of high heeled shoes.
Nail Fungus (Onychomycosis) - 
Discoloration (yellow or brown) or thickening of the nail; can lead to skin infections.
Neuroma - 
Painful enlarged growths of nerves, usually between the third and fourth toe, causing burning, tingling or numbness.  
Neuropathy - 
Loss of sensation of pain, heat and cold in the feet. Diabetes is a common cause of this condition, as is frostbite. Neuropathy can lead to serious infection if left untreated.
Sesamoiditis - 
Inflammation of bones underneath the base of the big toe, usually caused by excessive physical activity and improperly fitting shoes.
Stress Fractures - 
Partial break of the metatarsals ( the long bones of the foot), caused by repeated pounding or trauma.  Pain intensifies as exercise continues.
Subungual Hematoma -
Blood beneath the nail, usually a result of injury or excessive physical activity. Possible indicator of toe fracture.
Ulcer - 
Open sores or breaks in the skin, often an indicator of circulation problems and/or diabetes.
Warts -
Virus causing abnormal growths on the skin. We offer a new non-invasive treatment.  For information see

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